EDUCATION


“Think of American freedmen who, after centuries of being denied literacy in slavery, made schooling a centerpiece in the exercise of their hard-won freedom. As one former slave put it in the 1860s, “What would the best soil produce without cultivation? We want to get wisdom. That is all we need. Let us get that and we are made for time and eternity.” Think of the thousands of school children who marched to Cape Town’s City Hall this September, politely demanding libraries, classrooms, and, as one ninth-grader said, “more information and knowledge.”

 Think of W.E.B. Du Bois, Harvard’s first black Ph.D., who proclaimed, “Of all the civil rights that the world has struggled for, for five thousand years, the right to learn is undoubtedly the most fundamental.”

Du Bois had to struggle for his own education and in 1891 finally persuaded a scholarship committee that there was a black person worthy of sending to graduate school.“I find men willing to help me use my hands …” he wrote, “but I never found a man willing to help me get a Harvard Ph.D.” Finally, that changed.” – Drew Gilpin Faust

http://www.ips-dc.org/blog/stealing_from_the_mouth_of_public_education_to_feed_the_prison_industrial_complex

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~ Birth of the Cradle to Prison Pipeline for African Americans~~

The New Orleans Times a Talk with Gen. Forrest

published 12-08-1875

 

  We met at Nashville our old friend Gen N. B. Forrest, and had a long interview with him.

The General has been farming with convict labor and is much pleased with his experiment.

He has a plantation some fifteen miles from Memphis; upon this he worked this year thirty-six men and four women, taken from the Nashville Penitentiary, and he has averaged fifteen acres to the hand in cotton and corn, and will make eight bales of cotton to the hand, off of about 480 acres in cotton.

He made some two or three months ago a contract with the County  of Shelby county, which includes Memphis to take all persons sentenced to the workhouse; this, in the last few weeks, increased his force to more than a hundred hands……

The last Legislature of Tennessee passed a very wise and salutary law. Vagrancy was made an indictable crime and the grade of petty larceny was raised from ten dollars to thirty.  It had been found that the rigid enforcement of the law in relation to larceny was rapidly filling up the penitentiary with negroes; the counties were terribly taxed for the costs of arrests, commitments, jail keeping and jury fees, while the State was burdened with the charge for fees of sheriffs and guards, while conducting the convicts to the penitentiary, as well as the costs of transportation from all the counties to the penitentiary at Nashville. Petty larceny was therefore made to include all property up to the value of thirty dollars, and was made punishable with imprisonment not to exceed three years in the county workhouse……..

Among the last lots of convicts are some twenty boy vagrants called mackerels, from 12 to 17 years old……

PRISON LABOR BOOMS IN THE U S


“The American government has been critical of China’s forced-labor policies, but the United States has a burgeoning prison labor pool of its own.

Russia Today filed a report on Sunday that said hundreds of companies nationwide now benefit from the low, and sometimes no-wage labor of America’s prisoners.

Prison labor is being harvested on a massive scale, according to professors Steve Fraser and Joshua B. Freeman.”

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/10/prison-labor_n_2272036.html

 

Health Care in the African American Community


1. HEALTH CARE IN THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY

Health Care in the African American Community

2. HOW MASS INCARCERATION THREATENS PUBLIC HEALTH

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jason-silverstein/how-mass-incarceration-th_b_2787298.html

3. HOW RACISM IS BAD FOR OUR BODIES

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/03/how-racism-is-bad-for-our-bodies/273911/

Results after hundreds of years of American Overt and Covert Racism ~The White Porcelain Cup Effect~


“The mechanics of oppressing people is to pervert them to the extent that they become the instruments of their own oppression.” – Kumasi, from Crips and Bloods: Made in America

Overt and Covert Racism what does it look like in:

  • History
  • Economy
  •   Health and Human Services
  •   Prison
  • Education
  •  Family
  •    Community
  •     Individuals

HISTORY

~~~~~ As we were taught ~~~~~
The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27-30  

The activities of insurgent groups such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) undermined the act; and it failed to immediately secure the civil rights of African Americans All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exaction’s of every kind, and to no other.
This section of the United States Code is based on section one of the Civil Rights Act of 1866.[4]

HISTORY

~~~~~ As it happened ~~~~~

        The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, is a United States federal law that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War.

  • The Act was enacted by Congress in 1865 but vetoed by President Andrew Johnson.
  • In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill.
  • Although Johnson again vetoed it, a two-thirds majority in each house overcame the veto and the bill became law. [2]  
  • Formally titled ‘An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their vindication’, the Act declared that people born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power are entitled to be citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.

What major item the American Southern plantation owners and the Northern merchants lost after the Civil War?

free labor Free labor. free labor

Harvard University and its forgotten History of Slavery

read book at the link below

http://www.harvardandslavery.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Harvard-Slavery-Book-111110.pdf

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Although provisions were put into place for the Ex – Slave Owners [United States Ex – Slave Owners Registration Bureau] because they lost $800,000,000 worth of legitimate property when the Proclamation of Emancipation was issued.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_vault/2013/04/24/ex_slave_owners_registration_bureau_broadside_sent_to_former_slave_owners.html

NOTHING was put into place for the Ex – Slaves and “Land Allocation Efforts Stymied by the Johnson Administration”.

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2010/summer/slave-pension.html

         In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans not only helped the South, but also enriched Northern merchants. Much of the Southern cotton was transshipped through the northern ports.

         Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after emancipation and the end of the Civil War in 1865. Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which free black farmers and landless white farmers worked on white-owned cotton plantations of the wealthy in return for a share of the profits.

         (In the American South, for example, Blacks wanted full economic independence while White plantation owners sought an equivalent to slave labor.) [3]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery
Except:

         Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. [5]

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The New Orleans Times a Talk with Gen. Forrest published 12-08-1875

We met at Nashville our old friend Gen N. B. Forrest, and had a long interview with him.
The General has been farming with convict labor and is much pleased with his experiment.
He has a plantation some fifteen miles from Memphis; upon this he worked this year thirty-six men and four women, taken from the Nashville Penitentiary, and he has averaged fifteen acres to the hand in cotton and corn, and will make eight bales of cotton to the hand, off of about 480 acres in cotton.

He made some two or three months ago a contract with the County  of Shelby county, which includes Memphis to take all persons sentenced to the workhouse; this, in the last few weeks, increased his force to more than a hundred hands……

The last Legislature of Tennessee passed a very wise and salutary law. Vagrancy was made an indictable crime and the grade of petty larceny was raised from ten dollars to thirty.  It had been found that the rigid enforcement of the law in relation to larceny was rapidly filling up the penitentiary with negroes; the counties were terribly taxed for the costs of arrests, commitments, jail keeping and jury fees, while the State was burdened with the charge for fees of sheriffs and guards, while conducting the convicts to the penitentiary, as well as the costs of transportation from all the counties to the penitentiary at Nashville. Petty larceny was therefore made to include all property up to the value of thirty dollars, and was made punishable with imprisonment not to exceed three years in the county workhouse……..
Among the last lots of convicts are some twenty boy vagrants called mackerels, from 12 to 17 years old………..[hence]

 Birth of the Cradle to Prison Pipeline

~~~Civil Rights in 1953~~~

Video: When Heston, Poitier, Brando, Baldwin, and Belafonte Sat Down to Talk Civil Rights

The White Porcelain Cup Effect on the The School to Prison Pipline which began in 1874


When I was in 6th grade I sat down to watch “60 Minutes” on this particular show there was a Russian scientist that had defected to the United States. Their conversation covered a multitude of subjects but only this one stayed with me for 48 years.

The commentator asked the scientist why “the people” did not just rebel and take over their communistic government because of the oppression and suffering? It was clear the masses of people outnumbered those in political office. The scientist thought seemingly careful choosing the words to explain this phenomena he began:

” Let me explain using an experiment. In the summer go have lunch in a park.

         Set your food out on a blanket and wait…ants will come

         Sit a white porcelain cup down on the blanket then gather five ants and place them in the cup. Each time they try to crawl out of the cup gently push them back down.

DO NOT HURT THE ANTS PHYSICALLY!

         After a while the ants will stop trying to climb out. Even if it begins to rain they will drown or climb on top of each other but will not try to climb out of the cup…”

How the White Porcelain Cup effect touches African American lives? Through Overt and Covert Racism!

 Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.”  Henry David Thoreau

Overt

“Overt racism is a public, conscious act intended to harm or damage a person or a group of people of another race specifically because of the race of the victimized person or group of people.”

Covert

Covert racism is done to African Americans through racial profiling, mortgage discrimination, poor quality education, prisons, health and obviously mental health disparities.